- Umbrella NGOs:
- Russian/Old Believer minority:
- Culture Development Foundation (organisers of the annual Russian Culture Days)
- Russian Society in Latvia (Orthodox)
- Arkona (education; inactive)
- Russian Culture Centre (Daugavpils city municipality)
- Association of Russian Language and Literature Teachers
- Sororitas Tatiana (corporation)
- Fraternitas Arctica (corporation)
- Russian Cultural Society of Latvia
- Russian Community of Rezekne
- Zavoloko Old Believers Association
- Old Believers of Daugavpils
Language and demographics
Central Statistical Bureau. 2011 census results on languages https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/census/search-in-theme/1442-home-latvian-spoken-62-latvian-population (press release); https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/census/tables/tsg11-08/resident-population-latvia-main-language-spoken-home (tables); https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/characteristics/search-in-theme/44-share-resident-population-riga-and-jurmala (maps of Riga and Jurmala cities); http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__tautassk__taut__tsk2011/TSG11-07.px/ (Resident population in statistical regions, cities and counties by sex, language mostly spoken at home and age group).
Central Statistical Bureau. 2017 survey results on languages https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/search-in-theme/2747-latvian-mother-tongue-608-population-latvia
Ministry of Education and Science. 2019/2020 statistics on general education https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/20192020-macibu-gads
Number of daytime schools by language of instruction https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4093/download (see “pa plūsmām”)
Enrolment of daytime schools by language of instruction https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4099/download
Evening and distant learning schools by language of instructionhttps://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4111/download
Enrolment of evening and distant learning schools by language of instruction https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4111/download
Kindergartens by language of instruction https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4138/download (see “Iestāžu māc. val.”)
Ministry of Education and Science report on tertiary education in 2018. https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/2137/download For demand to education in Russian, shown by private education practice, see pp. 71-73. Since 2019, due to forced gradual elimination of studies in Russian, the reports do not include information on the language of instruction
Central Statistical Bureau. IZG050. Language of instruction in pre-school http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/sociala/sociala__izgl__pirmsskolas/IZG050.px/
Central Statistical Bureau. IZG100. General full-time school enrolment by language of instruction http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/sociala/sociala__izgl__vispskolas/IZG100.px/
Central Statistical Bureau. IZG110. Teaching of [including so-called foreign ones, actually minority languages] foreign languages in the general schools http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/sociala/sociala__izgl__vispskolas/IZG110.px/
Constitutional Court judgments on minority education
http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2004/08/2004-18-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf (2005, on restrictions of minority language use in public schools, see in particular para. 13, ignored in later CC case-law);
https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2005/02/2005-02-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf (2005, on denial of co-funding to private minority schools);
https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2018%2F07%2F2018-12-01-12.-Saeimas-dep_latvie%C5%A1u-valoda-valsts-skol%C4%81s_ENG.pdf (2019, on additional restrictions of minority language use in public schools; see in particular ignoring international human rights bodies’ findings at para. 23.2);
http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Judgment-in-the-case-2018-22-01_EN-1.pdf (2019, on additional restrictions of minority language use in private schools);
https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/2019-12-01_Spriedums.pdf (2020, on restrictions of minority language use in private tertiary education; full judgment available in Latvian only yet; press-release in English at https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/en/press-release/norms-that-provide-that-the-language-of-instruction-in-study-programmes-of-private-institutions-of-higher-education-is-the-official-language-are-incompatible-with-article-112-and-article-113-of-the-s/ );
http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/2019-20-03_Spriedums-1.pdf (2020, on restrictions of minority language use in kindergartens; see in particular ignoring international human rights bodies’ findings at para. 18.3; full judgment available in Latvian only yet; press-release in English at https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/en/press-release/the-norms-that-determine-the-language-of-instruction-in-pre-school-institutions-comply-with-the-satversme/ , excerpt translated at http://minorities-latvia.info/2020/06/19/constitutional-court-judgment-on-kindergartens-excerpts-2020/ )
Constitutional Court rulings on other language issues
Case No. 2001-04-0103 – spelling names in identity documents https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2001/06/2001-04-0103_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Case No. 2003-02-0106 – language quotas for private radio and TV https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2003/01/2003-02-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Case No. 2012-24-03 – fines for local councillors for allegedly insufficient skills in Latvian https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/2012-24-03_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Case No. 2015-15-01 – language quotas for private radio https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2015-15-01_Lemums_izbeigsana.pdf (LV only)
Case No. 2017-01-01 – fines for displaying a multilingual plate with a streetname https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/2017-01_01_Lemums_izbeigsana.pdf (LV only)
Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs statistics
Naturalization statistics: https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/en/naturalization (EN) https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/lv/naturalizacija (LV)
Other population statistics, which includes distribution of population by nationality (pēc valstiskās piederības), by ethnicity (pēc nacionālā sastāva) & nationality, by year of birth (pēc dzimšanas gada) and nationality, by municipality (pašvaldībās) & ethnicity, by municipality & nationality https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/lv/iedzivotaju-registra-statistika-2020-gada (LV only)
“Kopā“=”Total”; “Latvietis“=”[Ethnic] Latvian”, “Krievs“=”[Ethnic] Russian”,”Baltkrievs“=”[Ethnic] Belarusian”, “Ukrainis“=”[Ethnic] Ukrainian”, «Polis»=«[Ethnic] Pole», «Ebrejs»=«[Ethnic] Jew», «Latvijas pilsonis»’= «Citizen of Latvia», «Latvijas nepilsonis»= «Non-citizen [a particular local legal status] of Latvia»
Constitutional Court rulings
Case No. 2010-20-0106, on pensions’ rights of “non-citizens”. Judgment in English https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/2010-20-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Case No. 2009-94-01, on dual citizenship. Press release in English https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/en/press-release/a-case-on-dual-citizenship-has-been-adjudicated/
Case No. 2007-07-01, on citizenship of children born abroad. Decision to terminate proceedings, in Latvian https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2007-07-01_Lemums_izbeigsana.pdf
Case No. 2004-15-0106, on losing the “non-citizen” status. Judgment in English http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2004/07/2004-15-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Case No. 2001-02-0106, on pensions’ rights of “non-citizens”. Judgment in English https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2001/02/2001-02-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf
Central Statistical Bureau statistics
Population by citizenship IRG109 http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__iedzrakst/IRG109.px/
Population by citizenship and ethnicity IRG110 https://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__iedzrakst/IRG110.px/
Population by citizenship in regions and cities IRG130 http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__iedzrakst/IRG130.px/
Population by citizenship and country of birth IRG140 http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__iedzrakst/IRG140.px/
The members of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation strongly condemn the actions by the authorities of the Republic of Latvia, related to uncessant politicized repressions against Russian-speaking journalists and public activists working in the country.
Lately, systemic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms in Latvia get expressed more often and on a larger scale. The policy of the Latvian authorities, aiming to restrict interests of the so-called non-citizens and of national minorities, a de facto destruction of the Russian-language education space, a cynical rewriting of the history to comply with political conjuncture, a glorification of Nazi criminals and their assistants from local collaborators, cultural and linguistic discrimination are accompanied by blatant violations of the freedom of speech and by hindering the professional activities of journalists.
A detention, on December 3, 2020, of seven employees of news portals Sputnik-Latvia and Baltnews, by the Latvian State Security Service (SSS), has become a new provocative action of the Latvian authorities, aiming to squeeze out, illegally, representatives of Russian-language media from Latvia’s information space. After eight-hour questionings and searches, the detained Russian-speaking journalists were accused under Paragraph 1 of Section 84 of the Criminal Law of Latvia (violating European Union sanctions regime), which envisages a punishment of imprisonment.
[..] the members of the State Duma consider the actions of the Latvian authorities to violate directly Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms [..]
Document data: No. 1077519-7; 23.12.2020. Link: http://sozd.duma.gov.ru/download/CFCF336D-199B-49FF-AF82-4E412DD89E27
Attacks on democracy at large
The chapter about the Kremlin’s information influence activities uses Latvia’s case, where the country’s education system is transferring to the Latvian language in Russian language public schools where studying is currently split 60-40 between Latvian and Russian languages respectively. Obviously, the reform is not welcomed by some and thus foreign states use information influence activities to interfere in already existing domestic discussions, seeking to polarise society using deception to obscure, mislead and disinform.
The support of the Russian Federation to the cause of the pro-Russian school activists in Latvia and the populistic simplification of the problem bears a long-term risk of (a) polarizing the society and (b) weakening trust in the government, law enforcement, public administration, and democracy at large.
It’s worth noting that in addition to the pro-Kremlin media targeting audiences in Latvia, the Kremlin is also active in international organisations:
The international attempts by the Kremlin and its proxies to frame Latvia as a neo-Nazi country implementing policies to eradicate the identity of an ethnic minority achieves two goals: (a) placing Latvia as an outsider to common European and liberal democratic values, unacceptable to the Western democratic family of countries, and (b) justifying Russia’s foreign interventions (including military ones) to its home audiences by continuously maintaining a feeling of Russia’s compatriots abroad being threatened.
Document data: 01.12.2020. Link: https://euvsdisinfo.eu/from-information-laundering-to-influence-activities-russias-footprints-in-nordic-baltic-countries/ The article is quoting a NATO StratCom report. https://www.stratcomcoe.org/russias-footprint-nordic-baltic-information-environment-20192020
Publisher’s notes: The curriculum of minority (high) schools before the current reform (not “currently”) was not “split 60-40 between Latvian and Russian languages respectively” – 60 % was the minimum of Latvian, there was no safeguards protecting use of minority languages.