Report on the implementation of national Roma integration strategies (excerpts), 2019

I. SUBSTANTIVE POLICY AREAS

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1. EDUCATION

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1.1. Focus of measures

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Distribution of education measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Fight early school-leavingAT, BE, BG, CY, ES, EL, HU, HR, IT, LV, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SE, SK, UK
Consider the needs of individual pupilsAT, CY, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LV, LT, LU, PT, RO, SE, SI, UK
Encourage Roma participation in – and completion of – secondary and tertiary educationAT, BG, HR, CZ, ES, HU, LT, LU, PT, RO, SK
Increase the access to and quality of early childhood education and careAT, BG, HR, CY, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK
Eliminate school segregationAT, BE, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, IT, LU, NL, RO, SK
Use inclusive and tailor-made teaching and learning methodsAT, BG, HR, CY, CZ, LT, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK, UK
Support the acquisition of skills adapted to labour market needsAT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SI, SK
Support transition between educational levelsAT, BG, CZ, ES, HU, HR, IT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SK
Encourage parental involvementAT, BE, BG, CY, ES, HR, LV, LT, LU, RO, SK
Improve teacher trainingAT, BG, CY, CZ, ES, LT, RO, SE, SI, SK
Promote extracurricular activitiesAT, BG, CY, EL, IT, LV, LT, RO, SI, SK
Widen access to second-chance education and adult learning AT, BG, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR, LT. LU, UK
Fight illiteracyAT, BG, CY, HU, ES, HR, NL, RO
Prevent inappropriate placement of Roma in special needs schoolsAT, CZ, ES, HR, RO, SK

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1.2. Achievements and challenges

The most widespread achievement mentioned by NRCPs in the area of education is mediation9 . Other achievements include: development of kindergarten capacities10; improved support to fighting and monitoring early school-leaving 11 ; and including Roma inclusion and non-discrimination related topics in teacher training or national curricula12 .

9 AT, FR, EL, ES, IT, LV, RO

10 e.g. CZ, SK

11 e.g. HU, ES, LV

12 e.g. AT, ES, IT, PT

The most significant challenges highlighted by NRCPs include: school participation, absenteeism, early school-leaving, the transition from primary to secondary and the completion of secondary education. 13 Other challenges include: fighting segregation 14 ; ensuring and developing human capacities15; cooperation among stakeholders16; promoting early childhood education and care;17 adult learning and second chance education18; and data availability19 .

13 AT, CY, EE, EL, ES, FR, HR, LT, NL

14 EL, ES, HR, RO

15 EL, LV, SE, SK

16 ES, LT, LV, PL

17 BG, EL, ES

18 AT, BG, EL

19 HR, IT, PT

1.3. Policy learning

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Promising approaches:
BG, CZ, DK, EL, FI, FR, HR, HU, LT, PL, SK: Introduction or extension of obligatory (free) preschool, ESIF funded development of kindergartens, training for kindergarten teachers
CY, EL, ES, IE, IT, HR, HU, LT, LV, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI: Programmes aimed at preventing school drop-out of Roma (girls) through afterschool support, tutoring, scholarships, mentoring, mediation, assistants, second chance education, teacher training, support to families
AT, CY, FI, HU, IE, IT, PT, RO: Introducing Roma history (including the Holocaust) and/or culture in national curricula
IE, HR, RO: Allocation of places to Roma in secondary and tertiary education
LT: Network of schools attended by Roma children receiving capacity building and competence development
SE: Teachers training (Södertörn University) and secondary-level adult education in Romani

2. EMPLOYMENT

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2.1. Focus of measures

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Distribution of employment measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-area MS
Eliminate labour market barriers, including discrimination AT, BE, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SK
Provide personalised guidance to individual job-seekers AT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HU, HR, LV, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK
Support vocational trainingAT, BG, CY, ES, LV, LU, NL, RO, SK
Support lifelong learning and skills developmentAT, BG, ES, HR, HU, LV, LT, LU, NL, PT
Support self-employment and entrepreneurship AT, BG, HR, CZ, EL, ES, HU, LT
Support first work experience AT, BG, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR,
Support on-the-job training BG, CZ, ES, HU, LV, LU, SK
Provide equal access to mainstream public employment services BG, HR, CZ, HU, LV, SK, ES, UK
Promote employment opportunities within the civil serviceEL, HU, NL, SK

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2.2. Achievements and challenges

In their reporting on 2017, several NRCPs referred to the positive impact of economic growth on the prospects for Roma employment21. But even more NRCPs referred to targeted measures, such as regional employment programmes (career-counselling, vocational or on-the-job training and job matching tailored to Roma or vulnerable job-seekers)22. Such measures are even more effective when Roma are involved as mediators, social workers, or other service providers.

21 BG, ES, HR

22 AT, BG, CZ, ES, FR, HR, HU, LV, NL, SK

NRCPs emphasise three main types of challenges: capacity of implementing structures 23 ; discrimination against Roma24; and attitudes and trust of Roma themselves25 .

23 AT, EL, PL, PT, SK

24 EE, ES, LT, LV, NL, PT, RO

25 BG, EE, FR, NL, PT

2.3. Policy learning

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Promising approaches:
٠ BG, CY, ES, IT, LV, NL, PT, SI: Regional or local employment programmes (individualised counselling) to promote active job-seeking or self-employment
٠ HU, EL, ES, FR: Targeted programmes to improve the employability of Roma women (in the social sector)
٠ IT, LT, HU: Examples of cooperation with employers for job placements for Roma and fighting stereotypes
٠ SK: Amendment of the Act on Public Employment Services providing for an individual action plan to support labour market integration binding the jobseeker and the labour office
٠ BE: Since 2016, Roma have access to the ‘integration path’ set up for people of foreign origin in Wallonia (courses on French language, basic knowledge of society; support to find employment and children’s schooling). Municipalities employ Roma mediators in public social assistance centres, prevention or proximity services
٠ HR: Ombudsman’s office gives antidiscrimination training to public employment officers and other civil servants
٠ UK: Race disparity audit and website to collect and disseminate information on discrimination in employment

3. HEALTH

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3.1. Focus of measures

Distribution of health measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-area MS
Remove barriers to healthcare AT, BE, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, IT, RO, SE, SK, UK
Promote health awareness AT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, IT, LV, NL, SE, SI, SK, UK,
Improve access to free vaccination programmes targeting children and groups most at risk AT, BG, EL, HR, HU, SK, UK
Improve access to medical check-ups, prenatal and postnatal care and family planningAT, ES, HU, SI, SK, UK

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4. HOUSING

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4.1. Focus of measures

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Distribution of health measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-area MS
Ensure access to public utilities and infrastructure for housing BE, BG, CY, EL, ES, HR, RO, SI, SK, UK
Eliminate spatial segregation and promote desegregation AT, BE, BG, EL, ES, HU, IT, LT, RO, SK, UK
Promote non-discriminatory access to social housing AT, CZ, EL, ES, HU, IT, LT, LV, RO, SI, SK, UK
Ensure that urban regeneration projects include integrated housing interventions for marginalised communities BE, BG, ES, HR, HU, IT, SK
Promote community-led local development and/or integrated territorial investments supported by the ESIFES, HR, HU, IT
Provide halting sites for non-sedentiary Roma AT, UK

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4.2. Achievements and challenges

NRCPs reported that the most significant achievements were in access to social housing38. Another important cluster of achievements mentioned by several NRCPs was the elimination of slums and spatial segregation39. NRCPs also referred to results in the provision of halting sites40, access to public utilities (such as water, electricity and gas) and infrastructure for housing41; the legalisation of housing42; and in urban regeneration43 .

38 AT, CZ, EL, HU, LV, LT, PT, RO

39 ES, FR, HU, IT, LT

40 FR, NL

41 SI

42 HR

43 BG

Reported challenges include: spatial segregation44; barriers for Roma to access housing in the private sector45; as well as public support for and legislation on access to social housing46 .

44 BG, CY, ES, SK

45 ES, LT, LV, NL

46 CZ, BG

II. FIGHTING DISCRIMINATION AND ANTIGYPSYISM

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1. Focus of measures

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Distribution of non-discrimination measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-area MS
Fight antigypsyism by raising awareness about the benefits of Roma integration AT, BE, BG, CZ, ES, IT, LT, LV, PT, SK, SE
Fight antigypsyism by raising awareness on diversityAT, BE, BG, CZ, EE, ES, IT, LT, LV, PT, SE, SK
Fight antigypsyism by combatting Anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speechAT, BG, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LT, LV, SK, UK
Fight violence, including domestic violence, against women and girls AT, ES, IT, NL
Fight (multiple) discrimination faced by children and women involving all relevant stakeholders AT, ES, IT, NL
Fight underage and forced marriages AT, NL
Ensure the effective practical enforcement of Directive 2000/43/EC CZ, HR, IT, LT
Fight trafficking in human beingsAT, HU
Implement desegregation measures regionally and locallyHU, NL, UK
Ensure that eviction are in full compliance with EU law and international human rights obligationsIT
Fight begging involving children, through the enforcement of legislationAT
Promote the cooperation between Member States in situations with cross-border dimensionAT

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2. Achievements and challenges

The achievements most often mentioned by NRCPs were: improving the conditions of Roma women and children47; combating antigypsyism by breaking stereotypes or promoting Roma culture and history 48 ; and involving all relevant actors (public authorities, civil society and Roma communities) in efforts to promote anti-discrimination49 .

47 BG, EE, ES, HU, HR, PT, SK

48 ES, FR, HU, LV

49 IT, ES, SI

Several NRCPs referred to challenges of improving access to legal protection and rights awareness50, as well as difficulties in fighting against stereotypes51 and improving the situation of Roma women and children.52 The mere fact that several Member States53 – including some with large Roma communities and several with very high rates of perceived discrimination among Roma – did not report any antidiscrimination measures underlines the gravity of challenges in this area.

50 AT, CZ, LT, PT

51 EE, ES, HR, LV

52 BG, ES, SK

53 CY, FR, EL, PL, RO

3. Policy learning

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Promising approaches:
AT: As a result of an online consultation on the NRIS, efforts to address antigypsyism intensified. Fighting antigypsyism became a priority under the revised strategy and the focus of a dedicated event of the Austrian EU presidency
٠ DE: An independent expert commission on antigypsyism has been set up to provide the government with concrete recommendations regarding the history of Sinti and Roma in Germany, their persecution and discrimination, as well as recommendations for addressing antigypsism today.
٠ Recognition of the Roma Holocaust and setting up of a committee against racism with Roma participation (SK); monuments, exhibitions and online platform to commemorate Roma victims of the Holocaust (NL); annual commemoration of Roma Holocaust Remembrance Day in Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp (PL); Roma History and Art Museum and compensation to victims of forced labour (LV)

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Document data: 06.09.2019 Link [with annexes not quoted here]: https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/report-implementation-national-roma-integration-strategies-2019_en

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