Statistical Atlas of Latvia (excerpts), 1938

Title page of the Statistical Atlas of Latvia
Statistical Atlas of Latvia (Latvian, French). Riga: State Bureau of Statistics, 1938
Religious confessions in Latvia and its regions in 1935
Sheet 8. Religious confessions in Latvia and its regions, 1935. Green – Lutherans, Pink – Catholics, Yellow – Orthodox, Brown – Old Believers, Grey – Jews
Ethnicities in Latvia by the 1935 census
Sheet 9. Ethnicities in Latvia and its regions, 1935 census. Dark Green – Latvians, Red – Germans, Blue – Russians, Light Grey – Belarusians, Yellow – Jews, Dark Grey – Poles, Light Green – Lithuanians,
Ethnicity of rural population, 1935 census
Sheet 10. Ethnicity of rural population, 1935 census. 1 dot – 300 rural residents. Dark Green – Latvians, Red – Germans, Blue – Russians, Light Grey – Belarusians, Yellow – Jews, Dark Grey – Poles, Light Green – Lithuanians, Purple – Estonians. Below – ethnicity and rural/urban population by county
Ethnicity of urban population in 1897 and 1935
Sheet 11. Ethnicity of urban population in 1897 and 1935. Dark Green – Latvians, Red – Germans, Blue – Russians, Yellow – Jews, Dark Grey – Poles, Light Green – Lithuanians, Purple – Estonians. The numbers show percentage of Latvians
Ethnic composition of cities' population in the years of censuses
Sheet 12. Ethnic composition of cities’ population in the years of censuses. Dark Green – Latvians, Red – Germans, Blue – Russians, Yellow – Jews, Dark Grey – Poles, Light Green – Lithuanians.
Literacy by years, age groups, sex, counties and regions
Sheet 14. Literacy by years, age groups, sex, counties and regions

Document data: Link to the full atlas: https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-skaits/meklet-tema/258-latvijas-statistikas-atlass-xx

Publisher’s note: the 1935 census was conducted under an ethno-nationalist dictatorship, so the shares of ethnic Latvians might be inflated.

Inter-School Convention with Estonia (excerpts), 1934

Article 1

Estonia shall open and maintain primary schools for children of Latvian origin, irrespective of religion, and Latvia shall open and maintain primary schools for children of Estonian origin, irrespective of religion, if the number of children from 8 to 15 years of age required to attend those compulsory primary schools is not less than 15 within the boundaries of a commune or 20 within the boundaries of several neighboring communes together.

[..]

Article 3

If the number of pupils of Latvian origin in an Estonian school, or the number of pupils of Estonian origin in a Latvian school is less than the number indicated in Article 1 as required for the opening of a school, but more than 9, the mother-tongue of those pupils shall, on the request of their parents, be taught to them as a special subject.

Children whose parents are of different origin shall attend the school chosen by their parents. Should the parents not be agreed on the choice of the school, the father shall decide.

Article 4

The schools mentioned in Article 1 shall be opened, at the request of the parents or guardians, by the State or by the communes (urban or rural), in accordance with the present Convention.

These schools shall be maintained and provided with all the necessary equipment by the communes or by the State. The salaries of the teaching staff in these schools shall be paid on the basis and in the order laid down in the laws relating to the primary schools of the respective States.

If rural primary schools are attended by children domiciled at a distance exceeding 3 kilometres, the Contracting Parties shall open boarding-houses or make the necessary grants for the hire and upkeep of premises to be used as school boarding-houses.

Article 5

The appointment of teachers, the performance of their duties, and their dismissal shall be governed by the laws in force in the respective States.

Persons who have acquired the right to teach in primary schools in Latvia shall enjoy that right in Latvian primary schools in Estonia, and persons who have acquired the right to teach in primary schools in Estonia shall enjoy that right in Estonian primary schools in Latvia.

Teachers who are nationals of the other Contracting Party shall be allowed to teach in the schools, subject to the consent of the Minister of Education.

Teacher giving instructions in the schools of the other Contracting Party, as provided in the present Convention, shall enjoy in that State, irrespective of nationality, the right to a pension in conformity with the pension regulations in force in that State; in such cases, the length of service in the schools of the other State shall be taken into consideration.

The pension shall be paid by the State in which the teacher is giving instruction at the time of his retirement.

In the event of the pensioner’s death, the members of his family shall become entitled to the pension.

Article 6

Instruction in the schools mentioned in Articles 1 and 8 of this Convention shall be given in the mother-tongue of the pupils, and the teaching staff shall consist of teachers of the same origin as the pupils and speaking their mother-tongue. The heads of these schools must have a knowledge of the Estonian and Latvian languages.

The language of the State shall be taught as a compulsory subject, beginning with the third school year.

The curricula shall be drawn up in accordance with the laws and regulations in force in the State concerned.

These curricula shall also include the history and geography of the other Contracting Party.

Article 7

Should parents domiciled in the territory of either Contracting State wish to send their children to school using their mother-tongue, situated in the territory of the other State, no obstacle shall be placed in their way by either Party.

Article 8

If the number of children originating in one of the Contracting Parties, domiciled in the territory of the other and wishing to join the first class of the secondary school, is not less than thirty, the Ministry of Education of the State of domicile of such children shall, at the request of the parents or guardians, make arrangements for the opening of a secondary school in which the teaching shall be given in the mother-tongue of those children.

The funds necessary for the maintenance of these schools shall be granted in each of the Contracting States in accordance with the laws and regulations in force.

Article 9

As regards school fees, the citizens of the two Contracting States shall enjoy equality of treatment in all the educational establishments in Latvia and Estonia.

Article 10

Schools opened for children of Latvian origin in Estonia and for children of Estonian origin in Latvia may not be closed, unless during two consecutive years the number of pupils in those schools is below the minimum laid down in this Convention.

[..]


Document data: 17.02.1934 Link: http://www.worldlii.org/int/other/LNTSer/1934/151.html

Inter-School Convention with Lithuania (excerpts), 1931

Article 1

Latvia shall open and maintain primary schools or special classes for children of Lithuanian origin, irrespective of religion, and Lithuania shall maintain and open primary schools or special classes for children of Latvian origin, irrespective of religion, if the number of children from 7 to 14 years of age required to attend these schools is not less than 20 within the boundaries of a commune (urban or rural) and within an adjacent zone of not more than 3.5 kilometres beyond it.

Article 2

If the number of pupils in a school of not more than two divisions exceeds 40 and in a school of three or more division exceeds 35, two teachers shall be engaged for each of those schools.

Article 3

If the number of pupils of Lithuanian origin in a Latvian school, or the number of pupils of Latvian origin in a Lithuanian school is less than 20 but more than 9, the mother tongue of those pupils shall, on the express desire of their parents, be taught to them as a special subject.

Children whose parents are of different origin shall attend the school chosen by their parents.

Article 4

The schools mentioned in Article 1 shall be opened by the education authorities, at the request of persons or organisations concerned, in accordance with the present Convention. These schools shall be maintained and provided with all the necessary equipment by the respective communes or Ministries of Education, the teachers’ salaries being paid by the State.

Article 5

Teachers shall be appointed or dismissed in accordance with the laws in force in the respective States.

Persons who have acquired the right to teach in Latvia shall enjoy this right in Latvian schools or classes in Lithuania. Persons who have acquired the right to teach in Lithuania shall enjoy this right in Lithuanian schools or classes in Latvia.

The heads of the primary and secondary schools in question must have a knowledge of the Latvian and Lithuanian languages.

Teachers who are nationals of the other Contracting Party shall be allowed to teach, subject to the consent of the Minister of Education.

Article 6

Lessons in the schools mentioned in Articles 1 and 7 of this Convention shall be given in the mother tongue of the pupils. The language of the State shall be taught to the pupils of primary schools as a compulsory subject, beginning with the second year, and in other schools to pupils of all the classes. The curricula shall be drawn up in accordance with the regulations in force in the respective States. These curricula shall also include the history and geography of the other contracting country.

Article 7

A percentage of all expenses falling to the charge of the State in respect of the upkeep of High schools and secondary schools, calculated according to the number of inhabitants of Lithuanian origin in Latvia and of Latvian origin in Lithuania, shall be borne by the State concerned, in respect of the upkeep of Lithuanian high schools and secondary schools in Latvia and of Latvian high schools and secondary schools in Lithuania.

Article 8

Should parents domiciled within the boundaries of either Contracting State wish to send their children to schools of their nationality situated within the boundaries of the other State (for instance, in the case of Lithuanians in Latvia, to schools in Lithuania and vice versa) no obstacle shall be placed in their way by either Party.

The regulations concerning a knowledge of the language, history and geography of the State of which the pupils are nationals shall be drawn up by the Ministries of Education of the two Contracting Parties.

[..]


Document data: 25.01.1931 Link: http://www.worldlii.org/int/other/treaties/LNTSer/1931/144.pdf

Russian education and culture in independent Latvia, 1918-1940

Rezekne town. Russian Secondary School
The backside of the postcard shown above. The text mentions Russian Culture Day (the fact that in 1932, it does not take place in Rezhitsa/Rezekne town)
A ticket from a guest show of the [Riga] Russian Drama theater in Jelgava, 1930
Lottery ticket, Daugavpils (Dvinsk) State Russian Gymnasium, 1930, Russian-language side
Lottery ticket, Daugavpils State Russian Gymnasium, 1930, Latvian-language side
A certificate signed by the headmaster of the Riga city Russian [primary] school No. 9, stamped with a school stamp, 1925
Riga city 12th Russian basic school, pupil’s ID, 1937
Trilingual season tickets for trams. 1932/1933 academic year, pupils of a private Russian school
Cover of an alphabet book for initial learning, published by Old Believers’ community in Riga, 1938

Publisher’s note: many more relevant documents can be found at www.russkije.lv , some (more about the imperial times) at www.lvmz.lv See also https://www.instagram.com/p/BkQqXwlH7t0/ and https://www.instagram.com/p/Bn67VDsH4f9/

For a Latvian-Polish bilingual school document from 1934, see https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10221100091205600